Human Development Index 2019 for NABARD GRADE A /SEBI GRADE A/RBI GRADE B
Title of report: Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century
Norway with 0.954 score has topped the list. Switzerland is at 2nd rank.
Niger is at 189th rank and last in the list. Central African Republic is at 2nd last in the list.
Five key Messages of Report:
- Disparities in human development remain widespread, despite achievements in reducing extreme deprivations
- A new generation of inequalities is emerging, with divergence in enhanced capabilities, despite convergence in basic capabilities.
- Inequalities accumulate through life, often reflecting deep power imbalances.
- Assessing and responding to inequalities in human development demands a revolution in metrics.
- We can redress inequalities if we act now, before imbalances in economic power are politically entrenched.
The 2019 Human Development Report (HDR), entitled “Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: inequalities in human development in the 21st Century,” says that just as the gap in basic living standards is narrowing for millions of people, the necessities to thrive have evolved.
A new generation of inequalities is opening up, around education, and around technology and climate change – – two seismic shifts that, unchecked, could trigger a ‘new great divergence’ in society of the kind not seen since the Industrial Revolution, according to the report.
The report analyzes inequality in three steps: beyond income, beyond averages, and beyond today. But the problem of inequality is not beyond solutions, it says, proposing a battery of policy options to tackle it.
Thinking beyond income: The 2019 Human Development Index (HDI) and its sister index, the 2019 Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index, set out that the unequal distribution of education, health and living standards stymied countries’ progress. By these measures, 20 per cent of human development progress was lost through inequalities in 2018. The report, therefore, recommends policies that look at but also go beyond income, including:
- Early childhood and lifelong investment:
- Public spending and fair taxation
Looking beyond averages: Averages often hide what is really going on in society, says the HDR, and while they can be helpful in telling a larger story, much more detailed information is needed to create policies to tackle inequality effectively. This is true in tackling the multiple dimensions of poverty, in meeting the needs of those being left furthest behind such as people with disabilities, and in promoting gender equality and empowerment. For example:
- Gender equality: Based on current trends, it will take 202 years to close the gender gap in economic opportunity alone, cites the report.
- A new “social norms index” in the Report says that in half of the countries assessed, gender bias has grown in recent years. About fifty per cent of people across 77 countries, said they thought men make better political leaders than women, while more than 40 per cent felt that men made better business executives.
Planning beyond today Looking beyond today, the report asks how inequality may change in future, looking particularly at two seismic shifts that will shape life up to the 22nd century:
- The climate crisis: As a range of global protests demonstrate, policies crucial to tackling the climate crisis like putting a price on carbon can be mis-managed, increasing perceived and actual inequalities for the less well-off, who spend more of their income on energy-intensive goods and services than their richer neighbours. If revenues from carbon pricing are ‘recycled’ to benefit taxpayers as part of a broader social policy package, the authors argue, then such policies could reduce rather than increase inequality.
- Technological transformation: Technology, including in the form of renewables and energy efficiency, digital finance and digital health solutions, offers a glimpse of how the future of inequality may break from the past, if opportunities can be seized quickly and shared broadly. There is historical precedent for technological revolutions to carve deep, persistent inequalities – the Industrial Revolution not only opened up the great divergence between industrialized countries and those who depended on primary commodities; it also launched production pathways that culminated in the climate crisis.
The multidimensional gender social norms index—measuring biases, prejudices and beliefs: Research prepared for this Report proposed the multidimensional gender social norms index to capture how social beliefs can obstruct gender equality along multiple dimensions. The index comprises four dimensions—political, educational, economic and physical integrity—and is constructed based on responses to seven questions from the World Values Survey, which are used to create seven indicators.
- According to the index, only 14 percent of women and 10 percent of men worldwide have no gender social norm bias.
- About fifty per cent of people across 77 countries, said they thought men make better political leaders than women, while more than 40 per cent felt that men made better business executives.
India’s HDI value and rank India’s HDI value for 2018 is 0.647— which put the country in the medium human development category— positioning it at 129 out of 189 countries and territories.
- A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth -69.4 Years
- Education index: Mean years of schooling -6.5 and Expected years of schooling -12.3
- A decent standard of living: GNIper capita (PPP US$)-USD 6,829 as per 2011
Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI): India’s HDI for 2018 is 0.647. However, when the value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.477, a loss of 26.3 percent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices.
- Human inequality coefficient (%)- 25.7
- Inequality in life expectancy at birth (%)-19.7
- Inequality in education (%)- 38.7
- Inequality in income (%) -18.8
Gender Development Index (GDI): The GDI is calculated for 166 countries. The 2018 female HDI value for India is 0.574 in contrast with 0.692 for males, resulting in a GDI value of 0.829.
Gender Inequality Index (GII): India has a GII value of 0.501, ranking it 122 out of 162 countries in the 2018 index.
- In India, 7 percent of parliamentary seats are held by women, and 39.0 percent of adult women have reached at least a secondary level of education compared to 63.5 percent of their male counterparts.
- For every 100,000 live births, 174.0 women die from pregnancy related causes; and the adolescent birth rate is 13.2 births per 1,000 women of ages 15-19.
- Female participation in the labour market is 23.6 percent compared to 78.6 for men.
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): MPI value is 0.123.
The most recent survey data that were publicly available for India’s MPI estimation refer to 2015/2016.
In India, 27.9 percent of the population are multidimensionally poor while an additional 19.3 percent are classified as vulnerable to multidimensional poverty.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): UNDP is based on the merging of the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance, created in 1949, and the United Nations Special Fund, established in 1958. UNDP, as we know it now, was established in 1965 by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life.
UNDP is on the ground in some 170 countries and territories, supporting their own solutions to development challenges and developing national and local capacities that will help them achieve human development and the Sustainable Development Goals. UNDP’s work is concentrated on three main focus areas:
UNDP Headquarters: New York, USA